Cannabis sativa

Cannabis sativa

Synonymy

Source: Uotila, P. (2011+): Cannabaceae. – In: Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity.
Cannabis sativa L., Sp. Pl.: 1027. 1753
    • =Cannabis sativa var. spontanea Vavilov in Trudy Prikl. Bot. Selekts. 13, Suppl. 23: 148. 1922
    • =Cannabis ruderalis Janisch. in Uchen. Zap. Saratovsk. Gosud. Chernyshevskogo Univ. 2(2): 14. 1924
    • =Cannabis sativa subsp. spontanea, nom. inval.

    Distribution

    Ab(A N) Ar dAu(A L) Bu Cm Cs Es Ge Gg Hb dHu La Mo Rf(C CS E S) Uk [pAE nAl pBH aBe(B) pBl aBr By aCg pCo pCr nCt cCy aDa aFe pGa(aC) pGr aHb(E N) He pHo pHs(cS) cIr aIs nIt aLe pLt Lu pMa Mk aNo cPo Rf(pK aN NW) Rm nSa cSi(aS) nSk Sl aSu aSy pTu(A E)] 

    Euro+Med not endemicA,B,C: Albania naturalisedD; Armenia nativeE,F; Austria, with Liechtenstein native: doubtfully nativeG (Austria native: doubtfully nativeH,I,J, Liechtenstein native: doubtfully nativeJ); Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan (core) nativeE,K, Nakhchivan nativeE); Baleares introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationL; Belarus introducedM; Belgium, with Luxembourg casualN (Belgium casualO); Bosnia-Herzegovina introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationP; Bulgaria nativeP; Corsica introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationQ,R; Crete, with Karpathos introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationS; Crimea nativeT; Croatia naturalisedU; Cyprus cultivatedV; Czech Republic nativeW,X; Denmark casualY; East Aegean islands introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationR; Estonia nativeAA,Z; Finland casualAB,Y; Former Yugoslavia introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationAC,R; France, with Channel is. and Monaco introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationAC,R (Channel islands casualAD,AE); Georgia nativeAF,AG,AH,AI,E; Germany nativeAJ,AK; Great Britain casualAD,AE; Greece introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationAC,AL,R; Hungary native: doubtfully nativeAM; Iceland casualAN; Ireland, with N Ireland nativeAE (Ireland casualAD, Northern Ireland casualAD); Israel/Palestine cultivatedAO; Italy, with San Marino and Vatican City naturalisedAP; Latvia nativeAA; Lebanon casualAQ; Lebanon-Syria casualR; Lithuania introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationAR,AS; Moldova nativeAT; Montenegro casualAU; Morocco introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationAV; Netherlands introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationAW; North Macedonia introducedAX; Norway casualAY,AZ,Y; Poland cultivatedAC,BA,BB; Portugal introducedBC; Romania introducedAC; Russia (C European Russia nativeBD,BE,BF, E European Russia nativeBG,BH, Kaliningrad region introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationBI,BJ, N European Russia casualBK, NW European Russia introducedBL,BM, North Caucasus nativeBN,BO,E, S European Russia nativeBG); Sardinia naturalisedAP; Sicily, with Malta cultivatedAC (Sicily casualBP,BQ,R); Slovakia naturalisedBR; Slovenia introducedBS; Spain, with Gibraltar and Andorra introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationAC,R (Spain cultivatedBC,L); Sweden casualY; Switzerland introducedAC,BT,BU; Syria casualAQ; Turkey (Turkey, Asiatic part introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationR, Turkey-in-Europe introduced: uncertain degree of naturalisationR); Ukraine nativeBV; Ukraine, with Crimea nativeBW

    Common Names

    Aragonese (Spain): caimoBX, caméBX, caménBX, cañamazoBX, cañamón (fruto)BX, cañemoBX, cañimBX, cañimetaBX, cañimeta (pie femenino)BX, cañimoBX, cánimBX, cáñamoBX; Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese (Spain): cáñamoBX, cáñamuBX, marihuanaBX, maríaBX; Basque (Spain): calamoBX, calamúaBX, garsandeBX, kalamoBX, kalamuBX, kalamuaBX, linaberaBX; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): briBX, cànemBX, cànem indiBX, cànyemBX, cánamBX, cánemBX, cánoBX, haixixBX, mariaBX; Finnish (Finland): hamppuBY; Galician (Spain): canaboBX; High Aragonese (Spain): cameBX, cañamazoBX, cañimetaBX, cañimoBX, cánimBX, cáñamoBX; Majorcan (Mallorca): cañumBX, cànemBX, cànyemBX, cànyomBX, cányomBX, cányumBX, cáñomBX; Portuguese (Portugal): canhamoBX, cannaboBX, cánamoBX, cánhamoBX, cánhamo-europeuBX, cánhamo-ordinarioBX, cánnamoBX, cânamoBX, cânhamoBX, linho-cannemoBX, linho-cánamoBX, linho-cánhamoBX, linho-cánhemoBX, linho-cánnamoBX, linho-cânamoBX, linho-cânhamoBX; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): castañoBX, cañamonesBX, cañamones (fruto)BX, cañamónBX, cañamón (fruto)BX, cáñamoBX, cáñamo africanoBX, cáñamo de florBX, cáñamo de la Vega de GranadaBX, cáñamo hembraBX, cáñamo indianoBX, cáñamo machoBX, cáñamo que da semillaBX, eneaBX, femela de la AlcarriaBX, grifaBX, hachísBX, kifBX, mariguanaBX, marihuanaBX, maríaBX; Swedish (Sweden & Finland): hampaBY; Valencian (Spain): cànemBX, cánemBX

    Bibliography

    A. Burdet, H. M. 1996: Compléments au prodrome de la flore corse. Annexe 4. Flore analytique des plantes introduites en Corse [Natali, A. & Jeanmonod, D.]. – Genève
    B. Strid, A. & Tan, K. 1997: Flora Hellenica 1. – Königstein
    C. Viney, D. E. 1994: An illustrated flora of North Cyprus 1. – Vaduz
    D. Barina, Z. 2017: Distribution atlas of vascular plants in Albania. – Budapest: Hungarian Natural History Museum
    E. Grossgejm, A. A. 1945: Flora Kavkaza 3 (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    F. Takhtajan, A. L. 1962: Flora of Armenia 4. – Erevan: Izdatel'stvo AN ASSR (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    G. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. 1964–1980: Flora europaea 1-5. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    H. Adler, W., Oswald, K. & Fischer, R. 1994: Exkursionsflora von Österreich. – Stuttgart & Wien (as Cannabis sativa subsp. spontanea)
    I. Adler, W., Oswald, K. & Fischer, R. 1994: Exkursionsflora von Österreich. – Stuttgart & Wien
    J. Fischer, M. A. 2005: Exkursionsflora von Österreich, Liechtenstein und Südtirol, ed. 2. – Linz
    K. Karjagin, I. I. 1952: Flora Azerbajdžana 3. – Baku: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk Azerbajdžanskoj SSR (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    L. Bolòs, O. de, Vigo Bonada, J., Masalles, R. M. & Ninot, J. M. 1990: Flora manual dels països catalans. – Barcelona (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    M. Parfenov, V. I. 1999: Opredelitel' vyssih rastenij Belarusi (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    N. Lambinon, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. 2004: Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5. – Meise (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    O. Verloove, F. 2006: Catalogue of neophytes in Belgium (1800-2005). – Scripta Botanica Belgica 39
    P. Hayek, A. von 1927: Prodromus florae peninsulae Balcanicae. – Repertorium specierum novarum regni vegetabilis. Beihefte 30(1): 1-1193 (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    Q. Gamisans, J. 2007: Flora corsica. – Aix-en-Provence (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    R. Greuter, W., Burdet, H. M. & Long, G. 1989: Med-Checklist 4. – Genève & Berlin (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    S. Jahn, R. & Schönfelder, P. 1995: Exkursionsflora für Kreta. – Stuttgart (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    T. Tzvelev, N. N. 2004: Flora Europae Orientalis 11 (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    U. Nikolić, T. 2020: Flora Croatica. Vaskularna flora Republike Hrvatske 2. – Zagreb
    V. Viney, D. E. 1994: An illustrated flora of North Cyprus 1. – Vaduz (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    W. Kubát, K. 2002: Klíč ke květeně České republiky. – Praha (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    X. Kvetana 1 (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    Y. Jonsell, B. 2000: Flora Nordica 1. – Stockholm (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    Z. Kukk, T. 1999: Vascular Plant Flora of Estonia. – Tartu-Tallinn: Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AA. Laasimer, L., Kuusk, V., Tabaka, L. & Lekavičius, A. (ed.) 1993: Flora of the Baltic countries. Flora Baltijskich Respublik 1. – Tartu: Estonian Academy of Sciences (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AB. Hämet-Ahti, L., Suominen, J., Ulvinen, T. & Uotila, P. 1998: Retkeilykasvio, ed. 4. – Helsinki (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AC. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. 1964–1980: Flora europaea 1-5. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AD. Preston, C. D. & al. (ed.) 2002: New Atlas of the British & Irish Flora. – Oxford (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AE. Stace, C. 1997: New Flora of the British Isles, ed. 2 (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AF. Davlianidze, M. T., Gvinisashvili, T., Mukbaniani, M. V., Jinjolia, L. & Jugheli, T. 2018: Nomenclatural Checklist of Flora of Georgia. – Tbilisi: Ilia State University, Institute of Botany (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    AG. Davlianidze, M. T., Gvinisashvili, T., Mukbaniani, M. V., Jinjolia, L. & Jugheli, T. 2018: Nomenclatural Checklist of Flora of Georgia. – Tbilisi: Ilia State University, Institute of Botany
    AH. Kec'xoveli, N. 1975: Flora Gruzii, ed. 2, 3. – Tbilisi: Metzniereba (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    AI. Kec'xoveli, N. 1975: Flora Gruzii, ed. 2, 3. – Tbilisi: Metzniereba (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AJ. Rothmaler, W. H. P. 2005: Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. – München (as Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa)
    AK. Wisskirchen, R. & Haeupler, H. 1998: Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. – Stuttgart (as Cannabis sativa subsp. spontanea)
    AL. Strid, A. & Tan, K. 1997: Flora Hellenica 1. – Königstein (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AM. Király, G. 2009: Új Magyar Füvészkönyv Magyarország hajtásos növényei Határozókulcsok (as Cannabis sativa subsp. spontanea)
    AN. Wasowicz, P., Przedpelska-Wasowicz, E. M. & Kristinsson, H. 2013: Alien vascular plants in Iceland: Diversity, spatial patterns, temporal trends, and the impact of climate change. – Flora 208: 648-673
    AO. Post, G. E. 1933: Flora of Syria, Palestine, and Sinai, 2 [Dinsmore, J. E.], 2. – Beirut (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AP. Conti, F., Abbate, G., Alessandrini, A. & Blasi, C. 2005: An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora. – Roma: Fratelli Palombi (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AQ. Mouterde, P. 1966: Nouv. Fl. Liban Syrie 1 (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AR. Gudžinskas, Z. 1999: Lietuvos induočiai augalai (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AS. Gudžinskas, Z. 1999: Lietuvos induočiai augalai (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    AT. Gejdeman, T. S. 1986: Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. – Kisinev: Shtiintza (as Cannabis sativa subsp. spontanea)
    AU. Rohlena, J. 1942: Conspectus florae montenegrinae. – Preslia. Věstník (Časopis) československé botanické společnosti 20-21: 1-506
    AV. Fennane, M., Ibn Tattou, M., Mathez, J., Ouyahya, A. & Oualidi, J. 1999: Flore Pratique du Maroc 1 (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AW. Meijden, R. van der 2005: Heukels' flora van Nederland, ed. 23. – Groningen (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AX. Micevski, K. 1993: Flora na Republika Makedonija 1(2). – Skopje: Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AY. Lid, D. T. 1994: Norsk Flora, ed. 6. – Oslo (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    AZ. Lid, J. & Lid, D. T. 2005: Norsk Flora, ed. 7 (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BA. Mirek, Z. & al. 2002: Flowering plants and pteridophytes of Poland. A checklist (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BB. Mirek, Z. 1995: Vascular plants of Poland. A Checklist. – Polish Botanical Studies Guidebook Series 15 (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BC. Castroviejo, S. 1993: Flora Iberica. Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. 3 (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BD. Grigorevskaya, A. Y. & al. 2004: Adventivnaya flora Voronezhkoi oblasti (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    BE. Grigorevskaya, A. Y. & al. 2004: Adventivnaya flora Voronezhkoi oblasti (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BF. Maevskii, P. F. 2006: Flora srednei polosy Evropeiskoi tsasti Rossii (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BG. Tzvelev, N. N. 2004: Flora Europae Orientalis 11 (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    BH. Woods, J. 1851: On the various forms of Salicornia. – Bot. Gaz. 27: 29-33 (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    BI. Gubareva, I. J., Dedkov, V. P., Napreenko, M. G., Petrova, N. G., Sokolov, A. A. & al. 1999: Konspekt sosudistych rastenij Kaliningradskoj oblasti. – Kaliningrad (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    BJ. Gubareva, I. J., Dedkov, V. P., Napreenko, M. G., Petrova, N. G., Sokolov, A. A. & al. 1999: Konspekt sosudistych rastenij Kaliningradskoj oblasti. – Kaliningrad (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BK. Kravchenko, A. V. 2007: Konspekt flory Karelii (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BL. Tzvelev, N. N. 2000: Opredelitel' sosudistych rastenij severo-zapadnoj Rossii. – Sankt-Peterburg (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    BM. Tzvelev, N. N. 2000: Opredelitel' sosudistych rastenij severo-zapadnoj Rossii. – Sankt-Peterburg (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BN. Galuško, A. I. 1980: Flora severnogo Kavkaza 3. – Rostov-na-Donu (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    BO. Zernov, A. S. 2006: Flora Severo-zapadnogo Kavkaza (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BP. Galasso, G. & al. 2018: An updated checklist of the vascular flora alien to Italy. – Pl. Biosystems 152: 556-592. http://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2018.1441197
    BQ. Giardina, G. & al. 2007: A catalogue of plants growing in Sicily. – Bocconea 20: 5-582 (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BR. Goliašová, K. & Michálková, E. 2006: Flóra Slovenska 5(3) (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    BS. Martinčič, A. 1999: Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. – Ljubljana (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BT. Aeschimann, D. & Burdet, H. M. 1994: Flore de la Suisse, ed. 2. – Neuchâtel (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BU. Hess, H. E. 1998: Bestimmungsschlüssel zur Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete, ed. 4. – Basel, Boston & Berlin (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BV. Prokudin, J. N. 1987: Opredelitel’ vysših rastenij Ukrainy. – Kiev: Naukova Dumka (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    BW. Mosyakin, S. L. & Fedoronchuk, M. M. 1999: Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. – Kiev: M. G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (as Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.)
    BX. anonymous 2010: Anthos. Information System of the plants of Spain. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC - Fundación Biodiversidad – http://www.anthos.es/ (as Cannabis sativa L.)
    BY. Kurtto, A., Lampinen, R., Piirainen, M. & Uotila, P. 2019: Checklist of the vascular plants of Finland. Suomen putkilokasvien luettelo. – Helsinki: Finnish Museum of Natural History LUOMUS (as Cannabis sativa L.)